Thiamine's main function is as a coenzyme to convert the carbohydrate fuel glucose into energy in the muscles and nerves.

Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, readily excreted and should be replaced daily. Not a difficult task, since its best sources are whole grains and cereals, wheat germ and wheat bran, brewer's yeast, beans, beets, green leafy vegetables, potatoes, dairy products, nuts and seeds, oats, rice, etc. Thiamine tends to give urine a bright yellow color, but this effect is harmless.


  • Assistance in constipation, fatigue, premature aging
  • Help in maintaining normal circulation and red blood cell count
  • Improvement of appetite and nervous system function
  • Maintenance of normal protein and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Prevention of edema or fluid retention caused by heart condition
  • Promotion of growth and stamina
  • Protection against lead poisoning
  • Stimulation of brain activity and gastrointestinal tract integrity


  • Beriberi, edema, optical neuritis
  • Chronic constipation, digestive disorders, irritability
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Loss of appetite and weight
  • Mental depression, nervous exhaustion, impaired memory
  • Muscular weakness, tender calves, tingling of toes and soles
  • Slow heart beat, fatigue, nausea

Excessive vitamin B1 has no toxic effects, but amounts of over 1g a day may have a mild diuretic effect in the effort of the body to excrete the excess. A deficiency may be caused by excessive consumption of alcohol, sugar, processed and refined foods, antacid drugs, pregnancy, lactation, fever, stress, and surgery.