Accumulation of mineral salts (carbonates, oxalates, phosphates, urates) forming crystals in the kidney, which may travel in the urinary tract causing excruciating pain. A number of metabolic disorders help form kidney stones, including Cushing's syndrome, cystinuria, destructive bone disease, hyperparathyroidism, excessive use of antacids, excess vitamin C.

Eat a lot of watermelon and drink a lot of fluids. Limit animal proteins and salts. Avoid alcohol, asparagus, beets, caffeine, chocolate, dried figs, lamb, milk, nuts, pepper, poppy seeds, spinach, strawberries, blueberries, and beets.

Magnesium, vitamin B6, A, and C (not in excess). There is some evidence that calcium supplementation may actually prevent kidney stone formation, but best not to take supplements.

Gingko biloba, goldenseal.