Enlarged, swollen, twisted superficial veins, mainly in the legs, caused by defective vein valves allowing blood to flow back and swell and twist the veins. The condition may be congenital or acquired. Risk factors are, a low fiber diet, chronic constipation, pregnancy, obesity, required prolonged standing, heavy lifting, abnormalities in the structural components of vein walls, excessive enzyme release, etc.

Fiber-rich diet with plenty of vegetables and fruits, fish, legumes, whole grains. Avoid animal proteins and fats, junk, processed and refined foods, alcohol, cheese, peanuts, salt, sugar and tobacco.

Bulking agents like guam gum, pectin, psyllium, vitamins C, E and bioflavonoids, zinc.

Horse chestnut extract, bilberry, butcher's broom, grape seed extract, milk thistle.